Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Discuss About The Principles Of Strategic Management Abingdon? Answer: Introducation Strategic management is regarded as the process of setting objectives for the business analyzing internal and external environment of the business so as to operate efficiently in the market. Further, it is a well-known fact that in the modern era the market where companies operate is full of challenges and this has the adverse impact on the businesses(Wang, et al., 2014). Therefore, effective strategies are must through which companies can easily manage their overall performance, and in turn, it acts as the development tool for the entire firm. The tools such as SWOT, Porter, pestle, etc. are mainly undertaken for analyzing internal and external environment of the businesses. They support in knowing the range of challenges present in external or internal that businesses will face and on the basis of the same it is possible to develop strategies. The present study carried out is based on AirAsia X which is Malaysian low-cost airline headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is considered to be one of the largest airlines regarding destination and fleet size. Various tasks have been covered in the report which involves SWOT, Porter of the company along with recommendations to enhance present performance Porter five forces analysis In the present scenario, analysis of industry competitiveness is essential for long-term sustainability of a company. Furthermore, the use of Porter five force models can assist organizations to analyze the overall extent to which external forces can impact the operations and activities(Takazawa, Takasuga, Doi, Saito, Shibata, 2016). Implementation of Porter Five force model supports businesses to understand and analyze the vital force which shapes the overall degree of competition within a particular industry. The application of porter framework on Air Asia is mentioned below as: Threat of new entrant - The threat of new entrants in the airline industry can be considered as weak, and the rationale behind this is the entry barriers present with the industry(Wang, et al., 2014). It can be asserted that massive investment, capital, and resources are required to enter the airline industry. Industries or sectors with low entry barrier make it very easy for new businesses to get into the industry(Vogel Gttel, 2013). However, it can be critically argued that the growing need and demand of travel among people in the world can encourage new businesses to enter the airline industry and compete with existing brands such as Air Asia. In such situations, the threat of new entry for the company like Air Asia can become very high. To deal with these types of situation, the brand will be required to carry out changes in its strategy and products at frequent interval. The approach will support Air Asia to maintain its existing market share in the airline industry(Stead Stea d, 2013). Considering the present situation of the market, it can be expressed that the industry has become saturated and this has resulted in creating obstacles for new companies regarding entering the industry. Rivalry of existing firm Intense competition among businesses or companies in the industry results in creating obstacles regarding achieving higher growth, profitability, and market share. Furthermore, customers are available with wide range of options to choose from and this result in affecting the overall sales and profits of companies(Hubbard, Rice, Galvin, 2014). At present, Air Asia is facing intense competition from the brand such as Tiger Airways, Jetstar Airways, and SilkAir. Any changes in the price and strategy of competitors force Air Asia to carry out modifications in its existing strategy and prices(Roy, 2014). At the same time, the brand is required to emphasize on areas such attaining the high degree of customer satisfaction and loyalty. The unique selling proposition of Air Asia is that it has adopted a low price strategy and this is helping the brand to attract more and more customers. However, the threat of competition within airline industry is very high, and thi s is a major challenge for the organization. Threat of substitute product The threat of substitute product within the airline industry is very high, and this has emerged as a major issue for all brands including Air Asia. The rationale behind this high threat of substitute product is that there are different modes of transportation available to the customers(Pereira Caetano, 2015). Customers can opt for services such as private transportation (road) and fast trains (rails) to go from one place to another. In addition to this, the substitute services are much cheaper than the services provided airlines industry. It sometimes acts as a motivational force and encourages people to buy substitute products instead of opting for the services offered by Air Asia(Rothaermel, 2015). The result of this is that the selected business enterprise is not able to attract the desired number of customers in the long run. Bargaining power of customer - In the airline industry, the bargaining power of customers is very high, and this is another threat for Air Asia. It can be expressed that at present, people or customers are available with wide range of options and alternatives to choose from. At the same time, the customers are not required to pay any additional cost of switching, and this makes it very easy for them to switch from one company to another(Peppard Ward, 2016) Air Asia is expected to offer attractive discounts and schemes to retain existing customers and attract new ones. In addition to this, the brand is also needed to ensure that the clients are provided with satisfactory services against the money which they have paid. In case satisfactory services are not offered then the customer may switch to other brands operating in the marketplace(Kumar, et al., 2017). Such situation will adversely affect the overall volume of sales and profitability. Bargaining power of supplier The suppliers within Airline industry includes fuel companies, manufacture of aircraft, food and catering providers, labour union, etc. Furthermore, it is almost impossible for businesses to carry out the smooth flow of all their activities and operations with getting adequate cooperation from the industry suppliers(Nerur, Rasheed, Pandey, 2016). Thus, it can be stated that the bargaining powers of the suppliers in the airline industry are very high. The result of this is that the suppliers can dominate Air Asia and other players over prices. Presently, the number of vendors present in the industry is less, and this is another reason behind high bargaining power of the supplier within the airline industry(Wong, Chung, Hsu, 2016). Swot In order to analyze the internal environment of business SWOT analysis as one of the tools is most effective as it highlights the key strength along with the weakness of the business that is present internally. Apart from this opportunities and threats are identified that are present in the external environment of the business. Considering the case of AirAsiaX where the company started its operations in the year 2001 with two old aircraft. No doubt the market where AirAsia X operates is highly competitive and regulated by different laws which organization is required to comply with(Morden, 2016). The government has introduced a large number of laws that company needs to be followed for sustaining the market for the longer period. The company has adopted strategy of offering services at low cost where organization has promised Now Everyone can Fly The organization has adopted low-cost carrier model and along with this cost-saving innovations are carried out on continuous basis where AirAsia X is considered to be the first airline to use the new Airbus A320 aircraft that was installed with sharklet wing tips. In order to understand the key strengths and weaknesses of the firm SWOT analysis of company has been carried that has been shown below: Strength - The main strength of AirAsia X is that it holds lowest unit cost in the industry and due to this reason organization is famous worldwide. AirAsia X is the only airline in the global market with CASK below USD4 cents(AirAsia, 2017). The shortest route on which company operates is of three and half hour. The company offers its wide range of services at a lower cost, and this allows in attracting the large number of customers towards its services in the market. The main competitor of the company is Asian full-service carriers which hold unit cost higher than the firm(CAPA, 2014). Another key strength of the organization is flexibility associated with its fleet. This supports in understanding the strong relationship between AirAsia X and the sister group named AirAsia. On a yearly basis, the fleet size of the company grows by seven, and it is expected to reach 98 by the end of the year 2024(Hunt, Petitt, Truong, 2016). AirAsia is regarded to be the leader in the long haul low -cost segment, and this is indicating that AirAsia X holds the capability to dominate the entire market. So, in this way, these are some of the main strengths of the company. Weaknesses - The main weakness of AirAsia X is that company is not able to earn adequate amount of profits in order to recover the major costs. No doubt, the organization operates on the wider basis, and all its operations are costly. From the last, three to four years company is not able to earn high profits(Jenkins Williamson, 2015). Different unprofitable markets of the company involve Paris, London, Delhi, Mumbai, etc. Further, main losses are suffered due to high oil prices along with the fluctuations in the market conditions. The stock price of the company has not performed as expected since IPO and it is another weakness of the company that has adversely affected its performance in the market(Homsombat, Lei, Fu, 2014). Lastly, the relationship between Air Asia and Air Asia is limited as some overlapping ownership exists, and this acts as hurdle at the time of operating. Opportunities - In the external environment where AirAsia X operates provides the wide range of opportunities to the business and it depends on the business how to take advantage of the same. One of the main opportunity is the restructuring of Malaysian airlines that can benefit an organization(Hill, Jones, Schilling, 2014). Flag carrier along with Malaysian airline is planning to cut jobs, and this plan will be implemented in the next nine months. There is a direct opportunity present for AirAsia X where the company can hire MAS employees and can operate on the different routes. MAS will not operate in the Europe market, and this will act as the main opportunity for the company. Another key opportunity is expansion in the Chinese market. At present country like China is one of the main markets for Malaysian based carriers market(Van De Vijver, Derudder, Witlox, 2014). The secondary cities of China are also expanding at the faster pace, and due to this, it is a feasible opportunity for AirAsia X to take expansion decision where Chinese market can be targeted. Lower fuel price is another opportunity where it can significantly allow to develop new routes and can assist in enhancing the profitability level(Harrison John, 2013). Considering the present situation, fuel cost accounts for 50% of the companys operation. So, the decline in the level of fuel expense can surely allow the company in enhancing its profits, and this can be utilized for expansion purpose. So, these are some of the main opportunities present with AirAsia X that can surely provide the competitive edge to the business in every possible manner. Threats- Intense competition in the industry is the main threat faced by AirAsia X at the time of operating in the market. The low-cost model of the company along with heavy reliance on transit traffic has allowed operating in the market. But in the near future, this model can act like the threat as other companies are also operating with better services at an affordable price(Hahn, 2013). This can lead to the decline in market share of the business. Fluctuation in the fuel price will also be the main threat for the company as it may increase in the near future. This will adversely affect profitability level of the business and company has to manage this issue in any possible manner. So, these are some of the main threats that can influence business operations Recommendations Expansion in china - One feasible option is present with AirAsia X to expand in the market of China, but it is recommended to the business to carry out external analysis as through this it is possible to know the range of opportunities present along with the threats that can adversely affect companys performance. No doubt the market of China is expanding at the faster pace where income level of people living in the society is up to the mark and on the basis of this they can easily afford services of AirAsia X. The present model of the company associated with low-cost can surely be beneficial in the China market where people will access the services of the company at a low cost. On a continuous basis, the external analysis needs to be carried out, and along with this, the company needs to modify its internal structure. Some special schemes can be introduced by the business at the time of expansion. The company has to ensure that its pricing strategies are appropriate and targeting the right locations will be profitable for the enterprise. US and Europe market - Considering the market of Europe and US where services of AirAsia X are not present. So, in this case, it is required for the company to carry out market analysis of both the nations so as to identify the range of opportunities present. Further, it is necessary to develop effective strategies as these markets are highly developed, and well-established players are present in the marke(Gamble Thompson Jr, 2014)t. So, it is recommended to introduce some unique services that can deliver more convenience to the customers. The company can analyze the strategies of the firms that are already operating in the market of the US and Europe. Through this, it will be possible for AirAsia X to successfully expand in these markets and in turn, the investment amount can be recovered in short period of time. Furthermore, it is recommended to carry out competitor analysis on the continuous basis so that actions of other companies may not adversely affect operations of AirAsia X in the new market where it will operate. Business class/services/safety It can be recommended that Air Asia can emphasize on introducing new services for the segment, i.e., business class. It can be expressed that at present, the brand has adopted low price strategy and it is mainly targeting people who fall under the middle and lower middle class of the society(Frynas Mellahi, 2015). Furthermore, intense competition in this particular segment has resulted in creating several obstacles for Air Asia regarding achieving higher sales and profitability. To deal with the challenge of increasing competition within the industry, the selected business enterprise can seek for introducing new services for a new market segment(Eden Ackermann, 2013). However, it is suggested that effective forecasting and market research should be carried out by Air Asia before introducing any new service. The rationale behind this is that it will help in reducing the risk associated with failure of new product/service in the market. It is suggested that the demand for airline services within businesses class has increased due to globalization and international expansion of companies. This type of situation is going to act as an opportunity for Air Asia regarding introducing new services in the marketplace. In addition to this, it will also assist the company in enhancing its existing market share along with increasing the volume of sales and profitability. It is suggested that Air Asia should also focus on improving overall safety and security measures in its airline services and flights. The result of this is that better safety and security will support in developing a strong sense of satisfaction among customers and will also encourage them to opt for the services offered by Air Asia. The company will be able to obtain a competitive advantage over the other brands operating in the airline industry. Digitalization expansion In the present scenario, digitalization has resulted in providing businesses with a potential platform to carry out marketing and promotion of products and services. Furthermore, the use of platforms such as social media and the internet can help companies to reach the target audience most conveniently. It can be recommended that Air Asia should emphasize on carrying out the expansion of its products and service over the various digital platform. The use of this strategy will support the company to reach international customers and cost-effectively attract them(Bettis, Ethiraj, Gambardella, Helfat, Mitchell, 2016). Social media tools will provide the company with an opportunity to interact with all people in the market and understand their changing need and demand. In addition to this, it will assist Air Asia to identify the issue issues or problems which are faced by the existing customers. Based on the information collected, the selected brand can carry o ut changes in existing services and strategies to acquire the higher degree of customer satisfaction in the long run(Andersen Andersson, 2017). Training and development programs can be offered to employees so that they can make efficient use of the digital platform and can contribute to the overall growth and development of Air Asia. Conclusion Based on the above study, it can be concluded that Air Asias low-cost strategy is the major strength of the company. Furthermore, the strategy has supported Air Asia in getting a competitive advantage over other airlines operating in the industry. It can be stated that quality services at a low price have resulted in developing a high degree of satisfaction among customers. The brand posses remarkable flexibility with its fleet and this is considered as another major strength of the brand. However, it can be argued that poor performance of the stock and lack of profitability has emerged as the biggest weaknesses of Air Asia. It can be inferred that the bargaining power of suppliers and customers is very high in the industry and this is a significant threat to Air Asia. On the other side of this, the threat to new entry is low because an enormous amount of capital and resources are required to enter and operate in the airline industry. It is recommended that Air Asia should focus more on international expansion and digitalization. References AirAsia. (2017, August 16). The Beginner's Guide to AirAsia : Hi, We're AirAsia! Retrieved September 17, 2017, from AirAsia: https://www.airasia.com/in/en/about-us/hi-we-are-airasia.page Andersen, T. J., Andersson, U. (2017). Multinational Corporate Strategy-Making: Integrating International Business and Strategic Management. In The Responsive Global Organization: New Insights from Global Strategy and International Business. United Kingdom: Emerald Publishing Limited. Bettis, R. A., Ethiraj, S., Gambardella, A., Helfat, C., Mitchell, W. (2016). Creating repeatable cumulative knowledge in strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, , 257-261. CAPA. (2014, September 25). AirAsia X SWOT: challenging times but first mover advantage and fleet flexibility are huge strengths. Retrieved September 17, 2017, from CAPA: https://centreforaviation.com/insights/analysis/airasia-x-swot-challenging-times-but-first-mover-advantage-and-fleet-flexibility-are-huge-strengths-188591 Eden, C., Ackermann, F. (2013). Making strategy: The journey of strategic management. United kingdom: Sage. Frynas, J. G., Mellahi, K. (2015). Global strategic management. United States: Oxford University Press, USA. Gamble, J. E., Thompson Jr, A. A. (2014). Essentials of strategic management. United States: Irwin Mcgraw-Hill. Hahn, R. (2013). ISO 26000 and the standardization of strategic management processes for sustainability and corporate social responsibility. . Business Strategy and the Environment , 442-455. Harrison, J. S., John, C. H. (2013). Foundations in strategic management. Delhi: Cengage Learning. Hill, C. W., Jones, G. R., Schilling, M. A. (2014). Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Delhi: Cengage Learning. Homsombat, W., Lei, Z., Fu, X. (2014). Competitive effects of the airlines-within-airlines strategyPricing and route entry patterns. . Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review , 1-16. Hubbard, G., Rice, J., Galvin, P. (2014). Strategic management. Australia: Pearson Australia. Hunt, J. N., Petitt, K., Truong, D. (2016). Efficiency Evaluation of Low-Cost Long-Haul Carriers in the Trans-Atlantic and Asia-Pacific Markets. International Journal of Aviation Systems, Operations and Training (IJASOT) , 34-48. Jenkins, W., Williamson, D. (2015). Strategic management and business analysis. Abingdon: Routledge. Kumar, R., Barth, M. C., Delle Monache, L., Ghude, S. D., Pfister, G., Naja, M., et al. (2017). An Overview of Air Quality Modeling Activities in South Asia. In Air Pollution in Eastern Asia: An Integrated Perspective (pp. 27-47). New York City: Springe. Morden, T. (2016). Principles of strategic management. Abingdon: Routledge. Nerur, S., Rasheed, A. A., Pandey, A. (2016). Citation footprints on the sands of time: An analysis of idea migrations in strategic management. . Strategic Management Journal , 1065-1084. Peppard, J., Ward, J. (2016). The strategic management of information systems: Building a digital strategy. New Jersey: John Wiley Sons. Pereira, B. A., Caetano, M. (2015). A conceptual business model framework applied to air transport. . Journal of Air Transport Management , 70-76. Rothaermel, F. T. (2015). Strategic management. Uttar Pradesh: McGraw-Hill Education. Roy, A. M. (2014). Air Asia: what has made it Asia's largest budget airline?. Academy of Taiwan business management review , 28-32. Stead, J. G., Stead, W. E. (2013). Sustainable strategic management. New York: ME Sharpe. Takazawa, Y., Takasuga, T., Doi, K., Saito, M., Shibata, Y. (2016). Recent decline of DDTs among several organochlorine pesticides in background air in East Asia. . Environmental Pollution , 134-142. Van De Vijver, E., Derudder, B., Witlox, F. (2014). Exploring causality in trade and air passenger travel relationships: the case of Asia-Pacific, 19802010. . Journal of Transport Geography , 142-150. Vogel, R., Gttel, W. H. (2013). The dynamic capability view in strategic management: A bibliometric review. International Journal of Management Reviews, , 426-446. Wang, S. X., Zhao, B., Cai, S. Y., Klimont, Z., Nielsen, C. P., Morikawa, T., et al. (2014). Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia. . Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics , 6571-6603. Wong, J. T., Chung, Y. S., Hsu, P. Y. (2016). Cargo market competition among Asia Pacific's major airports. . Journal of Air Transport Management , 91-98
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Two years ago when I was 13, I ran in National racing for handicapped people. We drove all the way up to Orlando, Florida from Baton Rouge, because my dad is afraid of airplanes. It took an extremely long time to get to our hotel, but when we got there we discovered that it was filled with people on wheel chairs and crutches. After we got checked in and had spent the night, we woke up to discover a massive array of the best free breakfast food I had ever seen. When we finished eating a massive amount of food, we went over to another building to get signed up. At this moment I was slightly anxious, in my past experiences with racing like this, there was no one I could relate too, would I have some one to talk to? Be friends with? Can I win the races? All of these questions were going through my mind. We will write a custom essay sample on Running or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As I wondered around amongst a bunch of annoying people they finally called my name and I went to get signed in. When I got in the other part of the building they gave me a number on this sheet of paper with the sponsors logo on it, and they went further back in the building to classify me into one of the disability levels they have. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t really remember what my class was, but I do remember the ways they tested you. First they did some mental test they consisted of things like putting to blocks on the table (one blue one red) and you have to decide which one was red, which I might add was the stupidest thing I had ever heard. Next they tried to see how far you can throw a base ball and a club. So this really lady stands about 10 feet in front of me, assuming I was mentally Ã¢â¬Å"specialÃ¢â¬ and couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t throw a ball, and says Ã¢â¬Å"come on Jacob through the ball as far as you can.Ã¢â¬ She continued to assume things about me and I was starting to lose my temper with this, and she was blocking my way to throw the ball ( she deduced that none of the handicap people could throw it 10 feet.) So I decided throw it as hard as I could, even though she was in the way, I hit her in the head with a baseball, To me, I think she learned not to make quick assumptions about people. When I finished signing in, I went back to the hotel to get something to eat, and the food was amazing. I went to bed fairly early, because I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really know what to expect or, if any of the competitors would be anything like me, but I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t too worried about it, I have a way of not panicking even when I should be. I woke up early the next morning and got ready to go run. I ate a good breakfast of eggs, yogurt, milk, and bacon and started doing some push-ups. After that, I got in the car with my dad, who was really excited that I got to go to nationals heÃ¢â¬â¢s the competitor in the family , my mom, who just wanted me to have fun, and my brother, who was playing video games and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care. So together as a family headed we down to the field to sing the National Anthem, get my official racing number, and wait for my events to start. When the races finally started I was in, 7 events, baseball throw, discuss, club, 100m , 20m, 60m, 200m, long jump. First they did the base ball which I won easily because the other people only threw it 6 feet. Then discuss came with the same situation. Finally the running came. It started with the 20m which is so short of a race that it was just a waste of time, although I did win. Then came the 60m, which was also really short but again I won without much trouble. Finally it got to the 100 and 200m and it was actually kind of a race, for those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t know, 200m is a really long race for a physical handicap race. I won all of the races and got this cool little wooden plague with gold plates on the side, one for each event I won/ Through all of this IÃ¢â¬â¢d say I learned 2 lessons, donÃ¢â¬â¢t make assumptions about people. To me this is a valuable lesson because people make assumptions about me all the time, such as when people call me Ã¢â¬Å"specialÃ¢â¬ when I go to the movie theater. All of my experiences, especially this one have led me to the belief of not to make assumptions about people even if it seems obvious.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
The Matrix Film Editing Techniques essays Editing Techniques The Matrix The movie that I have chosen is called The Matrix. The Matrix is directed by brothers Andy and Larry Wachowskis. These directors have created themselves as innovative filmmakers who push the boundaries of live-action films, such movies like Star Wars and The Terminator, which showcase a unique visual style. The Wachowskis achieved this breakthrough on a display of techniques and digital effects, some never before seen in Hollywood films. Even though computer morphing technology had been used before in films such as The Abyss and The Teminator 2, but the Wachowskis were the first to use Flow-Mo, according to the Wachoskis, Flow-Mo is a time-bending digital effect that utilizes both computer-generated imagery and still photography. These are the types of predominate scenes that are used throughout the film. The term Flow-Mo refers to the technique used to create primary foreground subjects. For Flo-Mo, the Wachowski brothers wanted to be able to move a high-speed camera around subjects so that the scene will have a slow motion shot with a dynamic camera move. What made it so difficult was that the directors wanted to shoot very, very fast. A few high-end cameras have rates of 300 fps and then they explode at 301. The directors wanted the flexibility to choose frame rates at higher than 500 at will, with the ability to move the camera around the subject as if the scene was occurring at normal speeds. This simply was not possible with conventional technology. Then they would combine Flow-Mo with virtual backgrounds. The result, what is called virtual cinematography, which was something that seemed as natural as any real photography, but was completed almost entirely on the computer. The film itself is a complex story that aspires to mythology, focusing on a computer hacker named Neo (Keanu Reeves) who search...
Friday, November 22, 2019
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Definition The International Phonetic Alphabet is the most widely used system for representing the sounds of any language. A reproduction of the latest version of the International Phonetic Alphabet (2005) is available on the website of the International Phonetic Association. Abbreviation IPA Examples and Observations One of the most important achievements of phonetics in the past century has been to arrive at a system of phonetic symbols that anyone can learn to use and that can be used to represent the sounds of any language. This is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).(Peter Roach, Phonetics. Oxford Univ. Press, 2004)Though they are primarily designed for representing speech sounds (objective physical events), the IPA symbols are naturally also widely used for representing the phonemes of particular languages. For example, the initial consonant of English think is phonetically the dental fricative [Ã ¸] for most speakers, and so the phoneme realized in this way is commonly represented as /Ã ¸/. But note carefully that a conventional phoneme symbol consisting of an IPA symbol in phoneme slashes may not in fact be pronounced in the way the IPA symbol would suggest; for example, the phoneme at the beginning of English red is customarily represented as /r/, for orthographical convenience, b ut probably no native speaker of English ever pronounces this word with the trill [r]. . . . An IPA symbol in square brackets is (or should be) intended to represent a real speech sound accurately; an IPA symbol in phoneme slashes is just a convenient way of representing some phoneme in some language and may not be a faithful guide to phonetic reality.(R.L. Trask, Language and Linguistics: The Key Concepts. Routledge, 2007) See Also AlphabetPhonemePhoneticsPhonologyPronunciationSchwaSpeechWriting System
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Veterinary - Essay Example We can opt for three methods; 1) the conducting of face to face interviews, b) carrying out of telephone interviews and c) sending mailed questionnaires. However, with the advancement of state-of-the-art technologies, these methods can be applied through the internet and the utilization of contact centres. Conducting survey to the target group(s) and identification of at least three key areas of practice promotion that meet the needs of the local community Before a project or activity is to be lunched, it is important that there is an identification of the potential consumers and customers. It is best to consider that customers and consumers can be classified into categories: one is the individual customer and the other one is business organizations. Between the two, what would need intensive research is the individual consumer. For one the individual is unpredictable, and most of the time, they can only be considered as valid consumers once they have the budget and the preference fo r the products and services you are offering. ... farms and poultry). A classification of the community and locality that you are in, will greatly narrow down to whom should the survey be conducted. Design a survey that will tailor the extent of how your product and services will survive in the market. Or another way of looking at it would be, tailoring you r products and services to what the market in your locality needs. The focus of the survey therefore would be one; a) practices that will result to the greatest benefit of the locality that you are in and b) gaining the biggest monetary advantage from these best practices. Bringing the basics of marketing analysis into the context of health care and other health-related practices, physician practice promotion was be considered. Factors that have influenced and will influence consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s choice must be clearly evaluated in order to come up with programs that will increase income and revenue. When we talk about Ã¢â¬Å"medical marketingÃ¢â¬ , the concept covers a wide gamut of activities that are associated to practice promotion. Practice promotion has long been incorporated with activities such as practice literature, managed care initiates, through media advertising, conducting of patient seminars, among others. Market research and consumer surveys would point to the following key areas of practices (though may vary from places to places) are: animal vaccination, implementation of health insurance to pets, and to maintenance. Technologies would suggest that the most common and widely-used practice promotion would be advertisements. It communicates to the broadest number of people at the cheapest cost. Benefits of practice promotion through advertisements It has been
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Feminist Film Criticism - Essay Example The movie stars Zhang Ziyi, as the female protagonist Nitta Sayuri2, who, through a relentless desire to achieve her one and only goal in life3, has made it to the peak of her pursuit to be a geisha and eventually to become the mistress of the oki-ya4. The social position of the geisha is best described as something peculiar to the society of its source. This is so because their status in the traditional civilization is to some extent considered as indeterminate. This undefined portrayal of a geisha was successfully clarified in the film. As manifestly illustrated in the film, a geisha was given an unsurpassed status in the Japanese society. It evidently gave justice to the frequently mistaken position of a geisha with respect to their status in the populace. More often than not, a geisha is mistakenly perceived and identified as a "prostitute". However, this misconception was effectively dismissed as the film nearly reached its conclusion. The viewers correspondingly learned that a geisha is far more different from a prostitute. Although seen as somewhat rundown, the oki-ya is viewed as a house having significantly acceptable structure in the society. Comparatively similar to a boarding house, oki-ya is where the geisha and the geisha trainees stay and settle. As seen in the movie, a Geisha House is not as terrible and horrific as that of a brothel house where prostitutes are maintained. Its social structure as traditionally acknowledged in the Japanese culture gives a clear view how oki-ya is boldly accepted in the society. One becomes a geisha after an extensive training from the time she enters the oki-ya where she eventually turns into an apprentice, serving the mistress of the house by doing the domestic chores. Sayuri entered the oki-ya at the age of nine (9) and started as a servant for the "mother" of the house and to Hatsumomo5, the only geisha in the house. She was then prepared and trained to become a geisha with Pumpkin in a training school, learning the arduous arts of a geisha, which include, among others, dance and music; elaborate make-up of pale white faces and their enthralling red lips; wearing the kimono, pouring sake to reveal just a slight touch of the inner wrist, and the remarkable struggle with jealous rivals for the attention of men of the higher class. As the American anthropologist Dalby stated in her book, a geisha's position in the society is unavoidably vague. She wrote: "(m)arked as [a geisha] is by both high and low prestige, the Geisha and her place in Japanese culture remain elusively ambiguous."  The fundamental role of a geisha is to entertain men in business and politics in Japan. They were trained to function as the very amusing and gracious hostess, usually, in an important gathering which prominent men would throw. An essential part of bringing entertainment is through music and dancing where they show their talents as developed by the extensive training they underwent. "Each geisha is highly accomplished in particular skills such as playing the koto, dancing or singing, but they all train for years in the more general arts of caring for their guests (or, strictly speaking, clients). [Hendry, Taylor and Francis, 201] The geisha house or the oki-ya is controlled by
Saturday, November 16, 2019
The article by Joachim Wambsganss Essay The article by Joachim Wambsganss discusses the nature and functions of gravitational lenses that both help and challenge our understanding of the celestial bodies in the universe. As the author rightly puts it, the sky is filled with many mirages and mysteries to be explored. The gravitational lenses make the universe into a palace of glasses where one images reflects into multiple images creating an illusory effect. It is curious to know the nature and functions of these gravitational lenses that both help and defy our understanding of the universe. . Gravitational lensing is a budding and promising area of study in astronomy. It helps astronomers to study the dark matters in the universe. It is also useful to investigate the structure of quasars, black holes and find earth like planets around other stars. Ã Gravitational light deflection was identified and accepted, though not accurately. Einstein was doubtful about it though he predicted that a foreground star could magnify the image of a background star as a result of gravitational lensing. More optimistic was the Swiss-American astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky with his predictions on lensing effects of galaxies. At last the speculation came to an end in 1979 when astronomers actually saw evidence of lensing. Generally light that comes from a celestial body goes straight. But when there is any object in between it deflects and the deviation causes many distortions to what we see in the space. It is interesting to note that any thing that possesses mass can serve like a lens. It need not emit light on its own. Four consequences of gravitational lensing are identified. They are: 1.Change of Position, 2. Magnification and Demagnification, 3.Deformation, 4. Multiplication. The perceptible location of star or galaxy changes because of the deflection of gravitational light Secondly, it is also possible to see the magnification of brightness of a star or quasar because of the deflection of light. Sometimes the light demagnifies. Thirdly, galaxies can appear long-drawn-out into arcs or bananas because of the deflection of light. Finally, the multiple images are the result of strong gravitational lensing. How Lensing Works The gravitational Ã¢â¬âlens system has three components embedded in the space. The distance source of light, an intervening mass that acts as a lens and an observer on the earth are the three which form a straight line. The distant source of light could be a star, quasar, or galaxy. The intervening mass that acts as a lens can be anything from a planet to a black hole. Light travels through the shortest distance, and it need not be a straight line always. Sometimes it can travel through a curve as well. The light bends when it reaches the curved space near a cosmic body. The degree of deflection depends on how close the rays get tot the body and on the mass of the body. The deflect ion angle is directly proportional to the mass and inversely proportional to the closest distance. Gravitational lenses are different from ordinary lenses in many ways. The ordinary lenses have a well-defined focal point whereas the gravitational varieties produce focal lines or surfaces. The typical gravitational lens also causes light rays to experience smaller deflections. The gravitational lensing is achromatic. When the lens system is asymmetric, i.e. when source, lens and observer are not in alignment, the lens has an oblong mass distribution Ã¢â¬â and the resulting ring breaks up into discrete variegated images. The lens magnifies different parts of the source by different amounts and the highest magnification occurs at caustic. When the alignment is very far off or the lens mass distribution is very spread out, the lensing is very weak. With the discovery of double quasar Q0957+ 561 gravitational lensing became an observable science. So far 64 double, triple and multiple quasars have been found. The CLASS (Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey) project has mapped more than 10,000 radio sources and 17 multiply imaged systems. To identify whether it is real quasar or an illusion, observes have developed a checklist. They see whether the quasars lie at the same distance, whether their spectra is similar, whether there is any potential lens between the observer and the quasar and whether the brightness of each quasar fluctuates in the same way. When the galaxy lens is spherical it can distribute the light of background quasar or galaxy into a ring or circle called Einstein ring. About a dozen such rings are found. The important application of quasar lensing is to measure Hubble constant, which is a measure of size and expansion rate of universe. Multiple quasars can give insight into cosmological parameter called cosmological constant. It is essential to explain why the expansion of universe appears to be accelerating. The more is the expansion accelerated, the bigger the volume of space. Cosmological constant can not be more than 62 percent of the energy density of the universe. If the density is more, there could be more number of quasars. It supports smaller values of the cosmological constant. Quasars are unsteady by their nature and they tend to brighten and then dim on their own. Ã To distinguish microlensing fluctuations and intrinsic variability astronomers monitor multiple quasar systems. Ã In 1989 astronomers confirmed five multiple quasar systems. They conclude that innermost parts of quasar are hotter and bluer than outer parts. If lens is not single galaxy, but a cluster of galaxies then the image can be a kaleidoscope of strongly distorted arcs and arc lets. Studies on clusters of galaxies reveal that clusters are dominated by unseen dark matter. On an extremely large scale, the vast galaxy clusters of matter tend to be powerful lens. The wide spread shearing of galaxy images support the view that universe is giant cobweb of matter interspersed with voids. The article also focuses on MACHOs and Extra solar planets. MACHOs are collection of rogue planets, dead stars or black holes. However research says that the entire dark matter cannot be made entirely of MACHO. It also notes that stellar mass black holes may cause microlensing events. Stellar microlensing can even detect planets and the extra burst of brightening that might have been caused by planet candidates. Thus, the article Ã¢â¬ËGravityÃ¢â¬â¢s KaleidoscopeÃ¢â¬â¢ narrates interestingly how the study of illusions can lead us to the discovery of truth relating to celestial bodies in the universe.